Visual Guidance

Adapted from:

Developmental Vision Guidance Program

Pacific University College of Optometry Vision Therapy Services

Activities for 4 Weeks to 2 Years of Age

NOTE: Suggestions by age can be continued for as long as they amuse your child, not just during the weeks given. Think of these activities as building upon or adding to each other.

Vision Developmental Guidelines
Play Material
Skills Developed

4 wks - 8 wks

Bright dangling object (mobile, balloon, etc.)


  Ring Rattle, Plastic Ring, Rubber Squeaking Toys Eye-Hand Coordination (E-H); Textures
12 wks Cradle Gym Grasp & release; Fixation; E-H; Spatial Awareness
  String of Big Beads or Disks, Teething Beads Grasp & Release; Fixation with Tongue
  Stuffed Animals, Bell on Handle E-H; Spatial Awareness
  Big Rubber Ball Near to Far & Over Head; Face Down-Roll Baby
16 wks Mobile Close enough that hands might touch it accidentally
20 wks Say "boom" with Bed Bounce Bilateral motor response
24 wks- 32 wks Nested Toys E-H; Grasp & Release; Spatial Awareness
  Small toys to handle Sizes & shapes; tops & bottoms
  Pots & Pans, Spoon & Cup Sizes & shapes; tops & bottoms; inside & outside; sounds
  Lift on thumbs Bilateral motor response
  Mobile Move out for feet to hit; eye-foot coordination
36 wks- 48 wks Playpen Boundaries; up & down space; spatial relations; comparisons; bilateral pull-over & through sides (but still use as little as possible)
  Blocks and Pegs, Basket of Clothes Pins, Ball rolled back & forth, Wheel in trough Grasp & Release; near & far space; mobility & pursuits; search; field; relationship
  Large books Name & talk about pictures of common things
  Water toys Fill & spill, E-H
1 yr - 1.5 yrs Kiddie Car Bilaterality of hands, eyes & feet; Directionality; Coordination & Locomotion
  Pull Toys Orientation; Directionality; Spatial Awareness; Extension of arms & hands
  Push Toys, Sweep & Mop Sets Orientation; Directionality; Extension of arms & hands; visual steering & guiding; Coordination
  Blocks Pile & string; Combining; Build form; Visualization; size; shape; E-H
  Color Cone Texture; Hand judgments; Associations; Likes & unlikes; Visualization; Imagination
  Woolly & Soft Animals Form; E-H; Parts & wholes
  Climbing Equipment High & Low; Gross & fine motor activity; Localization
  Books (cloth or heavy cardboard) Symbols & Representations; Fixations; Identifications; Visual grasp & release; Parts & wholes
  Sandbox Filling & spilling; Saccadic hand; hand dexterity; visual cues & steering
1.5 yrs Stairs Gross motor control; Highs & lows
  Swing Movement through space; visual-vestibular stimulation
  Rocking Horse Bilaterality
  Large Ball E-H; Pursuits; Direction control
  Toy Hammer & Peg E-H
  Blocks (2" colored) Building, Combinations; Piling
  Push & Pull carts Loading; Unloading; Visual Steering
  Chest of drawers (child size) Personal recognition
  Music Box Sounds, Auditory recall
2 yrs Walking Rail & Balance Board Bilateral coordination
  More Boards & Boxes Inclines & Slopes; Highs & Lows
  Climbing Equipment Depths; Coordination; Balance
  Rocking Boat, Jump Board Speed & Balance; Grasp & Release of total motor system
  Trampoline Bilaterality
  Pegboard Grasp & Release; Form; Fixation; Saccades
  Interlocking Toys Units & wholes
  Toy Telephone Visualization; Imagination
  Screw Toys Right & Left Interweaving; Wrist Rotation
  Small objects (pebbles, toy cars, etc.) E-H; Imagination; Visualization
  More blocks (light, hollow, small colored shapes Combinations; Building; Balancing; Control of movement; E-H; Expression

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